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Pheochromocytoma

(Pheo; Adrenal Gland Tumor; Pheochromocytosis)

Definition

Pheochromocytoma is a tumor. It is made up of special adrenal gland cells. The cells secrete hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones help to regulate the heart rate and blood pressure. The cells may secrete excessive amounts of the hormones. This results in periods of:
Most of these tumors are benign and grow on the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. Other tumors occur elsewhere in the body.
Adrenal Glands
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Causes

In most cases, pheochromocytoma has no known cause. In others, it is caused by a genetic mutation.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chances of pheochromocytoma include:
  • A family history
  • Tumors in other glands of the body
  • Hormonal disorders
Genetic diseases associated with pheochromocytoma include:

Symptoms

Most people don't have symptoms. In people who have them, symptoms may include:
  • Severe headaches
  • Excessive sweating
  • Fast heart rate
  • Sensation of a panic attack
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea, vomiting, constipation
  • Pounding heart beat
  • Chest pain
  • Involuntary trembling
  • Pain in the lower chest or upper abdomen
  • Warmth, flushing
  • Increased appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia
  • High blood pressure, which can be constant or sporadic
  • Tingling, burning, or numbness in the legs and feet
  • Shortness of breath
  • Muscle weakness
  • Anxiety
  • Unable to cope with high temperature
  • Aggressive or unusual behavior

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your doctor may need to test your body fluids. This can be done with:
  • Urine testing
  • Blood testing
  • Clonidine suppression test
Your doctor may need images of your body structures. This can be done with:

Treatment

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy

If the tumor is benign, it is removed. This procedure uses small incisions and special instruments. Sometimes, the adrenal glands are removed as a part of this process.

Medications

Prior to surgery, high blood pressure will need to be brought under control using blood pressure lowering medications.

Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Chemotherapy may be used if the tumor is cancerous and has spread outside of the adrenal glands.
Radiation therapy may also be used to help destroy the tumors if they have spread.
Chemotherapy may be used if the tumor is cancerous and has spread outside of the adrenal glands.
Radiation therapy may also be used to help destroy the tumors if they have spread.

Prevention

There are no current guidelines to prevent pheochromocytoma.

RESOURCES

American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org

National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca

Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

References

Altiner S, Dodell G, et al. Pheochromocytoma-Induced Aggression? Endocr Pract. 2011;29:1-10.

Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G, et al. Phaeochromocytoma. Lancet. 2005;366(9486):665-675.

Mittendorf EA, Evans DB, et al. Pheochromocytoma: advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization and treatment. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2007;21:509-525.

Phoechromocytoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated May 15, 2013. Accessed June 4, 2013.

Widimsky J Jr. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromacytoma. Kidney Blood Res. 2006;29:321-326.

Revision Information

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