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Acute Abdomen

(Acute Abdominal Pain; Severe Stomach Ache; Abdominal Cramps; Surgical Abdomen)

Definition

Acute abdomen is the medical term used for pain in the abdomen that usually comes on suddenly and is so severe that one may have to go to the hospital. Acute abdominal pain can signal a variety of more serious conditions, some of which require immediate medical care and/or surgery.
Abdominal Organs, Anterior View
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Causes

There are a number of possible causes of acute abdomen. These may include:

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your risk of acute abdomen will depend on the cause.

Symptoms

The symptoms of acute abdomen have a variety of causes. If you experience any one of them, see your physician.
  • Persistent, severe pain, swelling, and/or tenderness in the upper, middle, or lower abdomen
  • Guarding—involuntary contraction of the abdominal muscles
  • Rigidity—when abdominal muscles are tense and board-like
  • Fever

Diagnosis

You will be asked for details about your pain, such as the exact location and duration. You will also be asked about any additional symptoms you may be having such as bowel or urinary symptoms. A medical history will be taken. You will be asked about any drugs or medications you’ve taken. A physical exam will be done, including rectal and pelvic examinations.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
  • Blood tests
  • Urine analysis
Your bodily structures may need to be viewed. This can be done with:
Surgery may be done to visually examine the abdomen.

Treatment

You may be given pain relievers. However, many doctors may delay prescribing pain relievers, since details of the pain can help find its cause. Do not take any medication such as Tylenol or ibuprofen, and do not eat or drink until you have spoken with your doctor.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Depending on the underlying condition causing your acute abdomen, treatment options may include:
  • Medications
  • Diet or lifestyle changes
  • Advanced medical treatment such as surgery—may be required for the majority of severe abdominal pains that last for at least six hours in previously healthy patients

Prevention

Depending on the underlying condition causing acute abdomen, prevention measures will vary. Talk with your doctor about preventing conditions that cause acute abdomen.

RESOURCES

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Association of Gastroenterology http://www.cag-acg.org

Canadian Digestive Health Foundation http://www.cdhf.ca

References

Abdominal pain, short-term. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/health-tools/search-by-symptom/abdominal-pain-short-term.html. Accessed June 19, 2014.

Cartwright S, Knudson M. Evaluation of Acute Abdominal Pain in Adults. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Apr 1;77(7):971-978. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p971.html. Accessed June 19, 2014.

Leung A, Sigalet D. Acute abdominal pain in children. Am Fam Physician. 2003 June 1;67(11):2321-2327. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030601/2321.html. Accessed June 19, 2014.

Zeller JL. Acute abdominal pain. JAMA. 296(14):1800. Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/296/14/1800. Accessed June 19, 2014.

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